Stategy is the craft of the warrior. Commanders must
enact the craft. and troopers should know this. There is no warrior in
the world today who really understands the Way of strategy.
There are various Ways. There is the Way of salvation by
the law of Buddha, the Way of Confusius governing the Way of learning,
the Way of healling as a doctor, as a poet teaching the Way of Waka, tea,
archery, and many arts and skills. Each man practices as he feels inclined.
It is said the warrior's is the twofold Way of the pen
and sword, and he should have a taste for both Ways. Even if a man has
no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking assiduously to both
divisions of the Way. Generally speaking, the Way of the warrior is resolute
acceptance of death. Although not only warriors but priests, women, peasants
and lowlier folk have been known to die readily in the cause of duty of
out of shame, this is a different thing. The warrior is different in that
studying the Way of strategy is based on overcoming men. By victory gained
in crossing swords with individuals, or enjoining battle with large numbers,
we can attain power and fame for ourselves or our lord. This is the virtue
The Way of Strategy
In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known
as "masters of strategy". Warriors must learn this Way.
Recently there have been people getting on in the world
as strategists, but they are usually just sword-fencers. The attendants
of the Kashima Kantori shrines of the province Hitachi received instruction
from the gods, and made schools based on this teaching, travelling from
country to coundtry instructing men. This is the recent meaning of strategy.
In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities
and Seven Arts as a beneficial practice. It was certainly an art but as
a beneficial practice it was not limited to sword-fencing. The true value
of sword-fencing cannot be seen within the confines of sword-fencing technique.
If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment
to sell their own selves. As if with the nut and the flower, the nut has
become less than the flower. In this kind of Way of strategy, both those
teaching and those learning the way are concerned with colouring and showing
off their technique, trying to hasten the bloom of the flower. They speak
of "This Dojo" and "That Dojo". They are looking for profit. Someone once
said, "Immature strategy is the cause of grief". That was a true saying.
There are four Ways in which men pass through life: as
gentlemen, farmers, artisans and merchants.
The Way of the farmer. Using agricultural instruments,
he sees srpings through autumns with an eye on the changes of season.
Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains
his ingredients and puts them to use to make his living. The Way of the
merchant is always to live by taking profit. This is the Way of the merchant.
Thirdly the gentleman warrior, carrying the weaponry of
his Way. The Way of the warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons.
If a gentleman dislikes strategy he will not appreciate the benefit of
weaponry, so must he not have a little taste for this?
Fourthly the Way of the artisan. The Way of the carpenter
is to become proficient is the use of his tools, first to lay his plans
with a true measure and then to perform his work according to plan. Thus
he passes through life. These are the four Ways of the gentleman, the
farmer, the artisan and the merchant.
Comparing the Way of the carpenter to strategy
The comparison with carpentry is through the connection
with houses. Houses of the nobility, houses of the warriors, the Four
houses, ruin of houses, thriving of houses, the style of the house, the
tradition of the house, and the name of the house. The carpenter uses
a master plan of the building, and the Way of strategy is similar in that
there is a plan of campaign. If you want to learn the craft of war, ponder
over this book. The teacher is a needle, the disciple is as thread. You
must practice constantly.
Like the foreman carpenter, the commander must know natural
rules, and the rules of the country, and the rules of houses. This is
the Way of the foreman.
The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory
of towers and temples, and the plans of palaces, and must employ men to
raise up houses. The Way of the foreman carpenter is the same as the Way
of the commander of a warrior house.
In the construction of houses, choice of woods is made.
Straight un-knotted timber of good appearance is used for the revealed
pillars, straight timber with small defects is used for the inner pillars.
Timber of the finest appearance, even if a little weak, is used for the
thresholds, lintels, doors, and sliding doors, and so on. Good strong
timber, though it be gnarled and knotted, can always be used discreetly
in construction. Timber which is weak or knotted throughout should be
used as scaffolding, and later as firewood.
The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to
their ability. Floor layers, makers of sliding doors, thresholds and lintels,
ceilings and so on. Those of poor ability lay the floor joists, and those
of lesser ability carve wedges and do such miscellaneous work. If the
foreman knows and deploys his men well the finished work will be good.
The foreman should take into account the abilities and
limitations of his men, circulating among them and asking nothing unreasonable.
He should know their morale and spirit, and encourage them when necessary.
This is the same as the principle of stategy.
The Way of Strategy
Like a trooper, the carpenter sharpens his own tools. He
carries his equipment in his tool box, and works under the direction of
his foreman. He makes columns and girders with an axe, shapes floorboards
and shelves with a plane, cuts fine openwork and carvings accurately,
giving as excellent a finish as his skill will allow. This is the craft
of the carpenters. When the carpenter becomes skilled and understands
measures he can become a foreman.
The carpenter's attainment is, having tools which will
cut well, to make small shrines, writing shelves, tables, paper lanterns,
chopping boards and pot-lids. These are the specialities of the carpenter.
Things are similar for the trooper. You ought to think deeply about this.
The attainment of the carpenter is that his work is not
warped, that the joints are not misaligned, and that the work is truly
planed so that is meets well and is not merely finished in sections. This
If you want to learn this Way, deeply consider the things
written in this book one at a time. You must do sufficient research.
Outline of the Five Books of this Book of Strategy
The Way is shown as five books concerning different aspects.
These are Ground, Water, Fire, Wind (tradition), and Void.
The body of the Way of strategy from the viewpoint of my
Ichi school is explained in the Ground Book. It is difficult tor realise
the true Way just through sword-fencing. Know the smallest things and
the biggest things, the shallowest things and the deepest things. As if
it were a straight road mapped out on the ground, the first book is called
the Ground Book.
Second is the Water book. With water as the basis, the
spirit becomes like water. Water adopts the shape of its receptacle, it
is sometimes a trickle and sometimes a wild sea. Water has a clear blue
colour. By the clarity, things of Ichi school are shown in this book.
If you master the principles of sword-fencing, when you
freely beat one man, you beat any man in the world. The spirit of defeating
a man is the same for ten million men. The strategist makes small things
into big things, like building a great Buddha from a one foot model. I
cannot write in detail how this is done. The principle of strategy is
having one thing, to know ten thousand things. Things of Ichi school are
written in this the Water book.
Third is the Fire book. This book is about fighting. The
spirit of fire is fierce, whether the fire be small or big; and so it
is with battles. The Way of battles is the same for man to man fights
and for ten thousand a side battles. You must appreciate that spirit can
become big or small. What is big is easy to perceive: what is small is
difficult to perceive. In short, it is difficult for large numbers of
men to change position, so their movements can easily be predicted. An
individual can easily change his mind, so his movements are difficult
to predict. You must appreciate this. The essence of this book is that
you must train day and night in order to make quick decisions. In strategy
it is necessary to treat training as a part of normal life with your spirit
unchanging. Thus combat in battle is described in the Fire book.
Fourthly the Wind book. This book is not concerned with
my Ichi school but with other schools of strategy. By Wind I mean old
traditions, present-day traditions, and family traditions of strategy.
Thus I clearly explain the strategies of the world. This is tradition.
It is difficult to know yourself if you do not know others. To all Ways
there are side-tracks. If you study a Way daily, and your spirit diverges,
you may think you are obeying a good Way but objectively is is not the
true Way. If you are following the true Way and diverge a little, this
will later become a large divergence. You must realise this. Other strategies
have come to be thought of as mere sword-fencing, and it is not unreasonable
that this should be so. The benefit of my strategy, although it includes
sword-fencing, lies in a separate principle. I have explained what is
commonly meant by strategy in other schools in the Tradition (Wind) book.
Fifthly, the book of the Void. By Void I mean that which
has no beginning and no end. Attaining this principle means not attaining
the principle. The Way of stategy is the Way of nature. When you appreciate
the power of nature, knowing the rhythm of any situation, you will be
able to hit the enemy naturally and strike naturally. All this is the
Way of the Void. I intend to show how to follow the true Way according
to nature in the book of the Void.
The Name Ichi Ryu Ni To (One school-two
Warriors, both commanders and troopers, carry two swords
at their belt. In olden times these were called the long sword and the
sword; nowadays there are known as the sword and the companion sword.
Let it suffice to say that in our land, whatever the reason, a warrior
carries two swords at his belt. It is the Way of the warrior.
"Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantage of using both
The spear and the halberd are weapons which are carried
out of doors.
Students fo the Ichi school Way of strategy should train
from the start with the sword and long sword in either hand. This is a
truth: when you sacrifice your life, you must make fullest use of your
weaponry. It is false not to do so, and to die with a weapon yet undrawn.
If you hold a sword with both hands, it is difficult to
wield it freely to left and right, so my method is to carry the sword
in one hand. This does not apply to large weapons such as the spear or
halberd, but swords and companion swords can be carried in one hand. It
is encumbering to hold a sword in both hands when you are on horseback,
when running on uneven roads, on swampy ground, muddy rice fields, stony
ground, or in a crowd of people. To hold the long sword in both hands
is not the true Way, for if you carry a bow or a spear or other arms in
your left hand you have only one hand free for the long sword. However,
when it is difficult to cut an enemy down with one hand, you must use
both hands. It is not difficult to wield a sword in one hand; the Way
to learn this is to train with two long swords, one in each hand. It will
seem difficult at first, but everything is difficult at first. Bows are
difficult to draw, halberds are difficult to wield; as you become accustomed
to the bow so your pull will become stronger. When you become used to
wielding the long sword, you will gain the power of the Way and wield
the sword well.
As I will explain in the second book, the Water Book, there
is no fast way of wielding the long sword. The long sword should be wielded
broadly, and the companion sword closely. This is the first thing to realise.
According to this Ichi school, you can win with a long
weapon, and yet you can also win with a short weapon. In short, the Way
of the Ichi school is the spirit of winning, whatever the weapon and whatever
It is better to use two swords rather than on when you
are fighting a crowd, and especially if you want to take a prisoner.
These things cannont be explained in detail. From one thing,
know ten thousand things. When you attain the Way of strategy there will
not be one thing you cannot see. You must study hard.
The Benefit of the Two Characters reading "Strategy"
There is a time and a place for use of weapons.
The best use of the companion sword is in a confined space,
or when you are engaged closely with an opponent. The long sword can be
used effectively in all situations.
The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield.
With the spear you can take the initiative; the halberd is defensive.
In the hands of one of two men of equal ability, the spear gives a little
extra strength. Spear and halbertd both have their uses, but neither is
very beneficial in confined spaces. They cannot be used for taking a prisoner.
They are essentially weapons for the field.
Anyway, if you learn "indoor" techniques, you will think
narrowly and forget the true Way. Thus you will have difficulty in actual
The bow is tactically strong at the commencement of battle,
especially battles on a moor, as it is possible to shoot quickly from
among the spearmen. However, it is unsatisfactory in sieges, or when the
enemy is more than forty yards away. For this reason there are nowadays
few traditional schools of archery. There is little use for this kind
From inside fortifications, the gun has no equal among
weapons. It is the supreme weapon on the field before the ranks clash,
but once swords are crossed the gun becomes useless.
One of the virtues of the bow is that you can see the arrows
in flight and correct your aim accordingly, whereas gunshot cannot be
seen. You must appreciate the importance of this.
Just as a horse must have endurance and no defects, so
it is with weapons. Horses should walk strongly, and swords and companion
swords should cut strongly. Spears and halberds must stand up to heavy
use: bows and guns must be sturdy. Weapons should be hardy rather than
You should not have a favorite weapon. To become over-familiar
with one weapon is as much a fault as not knowing it sufficiently well.
You should not copy others, but use weapons which you can handly properly.
It is bad for commanders and troopers to have likes and dislikes. These
are things you must learn thoroughly.
Timing in strategy
There is timing in everything. Timing in strategy cannot
be mastered without a great deal of practice.
Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music,
for they are in rhythm only if timing is good. Timing and rhythm are also
involved in the military arts, shooting bows and guns, and riding horses.
In all skills and ablilities there is timing.
There is no timing in the Void.
There is timing in the whole life of the warrior, in his
thriving and declining, in his harmony and discord. Similarly, there is
timing in the Way of the merchant, in the rise and fall of capital. All
things entail rising and falling timing. You must be able to discern this.
In strategy there are various timing considerations. From the outset you
must know the applicable timing and the inapplicable timing, and from
among the large and small things and the fast and slow timings find the
relevant timing, first seeing the distance timing and the background timing.
This is the main thing in strategy. It is especially important to know
the background timing, otherwise your strategy will become uncertain.
You win battles with the timing in the Void born of the
timing of cunning by knowing the enemies' timing, and thus using a timing
which the enemy does not expect.
All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. You
must train sufficiently to appreciate this.
If you practise day and night in the above Ichi school
strategy, your spirit will naturally broaden. This is large scale strategy
and the strategy of hand to hand combat propagated in the world. This
is recorded for the first time in the five books of Ground, Water, Fire,
Wind, and the Void. This is the Way for men who want to learn my strategy:
- Do not think dishonestly.
- The Way is in training.
- Become aquainted with every art.
- Know the Ways of professions.
- Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters.
- Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything.
- Perceive those things which cannot be seen.
- Pat attention even to trifles.
- Do nothing which is of no use.
It is important to start by setting thses broad principles
in your heart, and train in the Way of strategy. If you do not look
at things on a large scale it will be difficult for you to master
strategy. If you learn and attain this strategy you will never lose
even to twenty of thirty enemies. More than anything to start with
you must set your heart on strategy and earnestly stick to the Way.
You will come to be able to actually beat men in fights, and to be
able to win with your eye. Also by training you will be able to freely
control your won body, conquer men with your body, and with sufficient
training you will be able to beat ten men with your spirit. When you
have reached this point, will it not mean that you are invincible?
Moreover, in large scale strategy the superior man
will manage many subordinates dextrously, bear himself correctly,
govern the country and foster the people, thus preserving the ruler's
discipline. If there is a Way involving the spirit of not being defeated,
to help oneself and gain honour, it is the Way of strategy.
The second year of Shoho (1645), the fifth month, the
The Water Book